IELTS task 1

A quick introduction to the IELTS task 1 visuals

Each type of visual has its own problems. This is a very quick introduction to how to approach each one. There are much more detailed IELTS task lessons below.

Pie charts


This is a pie chart.

Note that you need the language of percentages and proportion here.

Pie charts always show 100%

Note that if you have two pie charts showing different times, then you may also need trend vocabulary

Always remember to compare and contrast 

Bar charts

holiday bar chart

This is a bar chart.

Sometimes the bar chart is about time and then you need trend language

When the bar chart is not time-based then you simply compare

A key skill here is to group similar items together

Look at the x and y axes to see what exactly is shown.

Line graphs


This is a line graph.

These are always about changes over time. You need trend words.

Do not just describe what happens, remember to summarise the overall trend.

Look at the x and y axes to see what exactly is shown.


IELTS table

This is a table.

These are hard because you have no picture to help you.

You need lots of number language here.

Remember to make comparisons between the different items.

Try to re-order the table to se what are the biggest and smallest numbers.

Think about grouping similar items together.

Process diagrams

Carbon dioxide returned to the atmosphere

This is a process diagram.

Here you need to order the information.

Look for the beginning and the end of the process

Summarise the process logically by going through each step in turn

Do not forget to summarise what the general process is


IMAGE SOON – you get a picture showing the same thing in different times

Here you need to look for changes over time.

You need to compare and contrast the two times.

Remember to give an overall summary of the change

Line graphs


Advice on how to write an IELTS task 1 report from a graph

How to identify main points in a line graph: the key is to look at each line in turn and then look for the comparison. 

Basic vocabulary to describe line graphs in task 1 : some basic variations with tips on how to avoid some common mistakes

More advanced vocabulary to describe charts and graphs: a list of words and phrases to boost your band score

IELTS writing – graphs – recommended website – a link to an excellent interactive site to practise tend language for graphs

Bar charts

bar chart past tense

Advice on how to write an IELTS task 1 report from a bar chart

Identifying patterns in bar charts – a sample report with advice on how to read bar charts and to help you organise your answer

IELTS writing – task 1 – some tips on selecting main details in bar charts – a video tutorial with an exercise on how to select the main details in bar charts

Exercise on selecting the correct details in a bar chart: a sample bar chart with a quiz and number of exercises to help you select the correct details to improve your task response band score

IELTS writing – a bar chart – how to organise your answer: an example of how use paragraphs when describing a bar chart

IELTS writing – bar charts – an interactive lesson – a lesson on how to approach a bar chart with a quiz

 Pie charts

 IELTS pie chart- poster source

Advice on how to write an academic task 1 report from a pie chart

IELTS writing – task 1 – pie charts – a video tutorial on how to select the correct detail from a pie chart

IELTS writing – task 1 – pie charts (2) – how to use the language of percentages to describe pie charts with 2 exercises.

A pie chart step-by-step: two model pie chart answers with extensive vocabulary help and a suggested approach to write your answer


IELTS table

Advice on how to write an academic task 1 report from a table

How to organise your answer in a task 1 table: you’ll find two model answers and advice on writing in paragraphs

IELTS writing – finding the key information in task 1 tables – how to find the right information on tables: tutorial with exercise

Using columns and rows : sample answer with advice on how to use columns and rows in a table to organise your answer

Comparisons in tables – how to make comparisons and vary your language  in task 1 tables with a quick quiz

Process diagrams

food chain

An introduction to process diagrams: The basics on how to deal with process diagrams with a helpful list of grammar and vocabulary to download.

Describing a natural cycle: the process cycle: a sample task with advice on how to read the process diagram when it shows a natural cycle and on how to make your description coherent.

Lesson with model answers

Energy production bar chart; lesson with advice on structuring the answer, avoiding repetition and comparisons

Transport in Milan: a sample summary with a table

The Olympics medal table – a sample summary with a lesson illustrating a step-by-step approach for analysing tables

Two pie charts and a line graph – a sample summary about data about farming in the UK

Families in Canada – a sample summary with two pie charts

Look at a sample task 1 question

The question is always in the same format. You are given a visual and then asked to

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, making comparisons where relevant

A complete question may look like this:

The charts below show the distribution of families with children by employment status in Canada in 1976 and 2014
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, making comparisons where relevant

couples in canada pie charts

Look at a model task 1 answer

This is what you are trying to write!

These charts show how there was a significant change in the working status of parents in Canada between 1976 and 2014. It is clear that there was a major shift from fathers being the sole breadwinner to more dual income families and single mothers.

In 1976 a huge majority of families were financially supported either by the father or by both parents: 51% and 33% respectively. None of the other categories of couples with no income, single fathers, single mothers and couples where the mother was the only earner accounted for more than 8%.

This situation was quite different in 2014. By that time, dual income families had become easily the largest category at 55%. It is also striking how the father being the sole earner had fallen dramatically to only 17%. Equally notable is how the proportion of lone mothers had doubled to 16%. The figures for couples with no income, single fathers and the mother as the major breadwinner all rose but still only accounted for only 8% of the total.

Key points in task 1

Summarise the chart – don’t describe it all or give your opinions

Write at least 150 words

Use varied and accurate vocabulary

Give yourself time to check grammar

Remember to organise logically and use paragraphs

Common questions on task 1

How many words do I need to write?

You must write AT LEAST 150 words

How long do I have to write?

You have approximately 20 minutes. 

You have one hour to write this and the essay. The essay counts for twice as much so you spend 40 minutes on that

What type of writing is it?

It is a summary of a visual diagram or chart.

Is it a description task?

No. You need to write a summary of what you see. This means looking for

the main points

key details

You do NOT describe everything you see

How is it graded?

It is graded on 4 criteria:

  • task achievement
  • grammar
  • vocabulary
  • coherence and cohesion

They all count for 25% of your mark

Can I give my own opinions?


Any opinions you give will be ignored by the examiner and will not count to your word total

Do I only get one visual?

No sometimes – quite often in fact – you have two or more to compare and contrast

What vocabulary do I need to learn?

You need a range of different vocabulary for IELTS task 1. Here are some of the more important categories:


comparing and contrasting

trend/changes over time


identifying main points

I have lessons on all these below.

Do I need to write a conclusion?

You don’t have to write a conclusion. They see normally found in essays.

You do need to write a summary statement though. This is an overall statement of what the visual shows.

This summary statement can either come at the start or the end.

Can I repeat words from the question?

Yes and no.

You can repeat some words – especially technical words that cannot be replaced. It is better to use a correct word that is repeated than a wrong word.

You should not though repeat whole sentences from the question.

General IELTS task 1 writing skills and vocabulary


A strategy for planning task 1 – learn how much time you need, how to spend it and how to make notes


Describing numbers – understand the maths –  how to describe numbers for academic task 1 using some basic maths

Numbers exercises  – a series of exercises to help you use number language accurately

How to compare and contrast numbers – useful language with examples and an exercise to help you compare and contrast numbers

Different ways to describe percentages in pie charts: pie charts are all about percentages, you need different words to describe them

Countables and uncountables with numbers – how to avoid some very common mistakes using words such as much and fewer


Some more advanced comparison language to describe charts and graphs: how to qualify your comparisons by using words such as considerable

Avoiding repetition

How to avoid repetition in task 1: advice on how to group information and use words such as both, similar and respectively to avoid repetition of words and structures


Advanced tend vocabulary for time charts: charts and graphs based on time require the language of trends. Does that line rise or fall?


Using tenses to describe charts and graphs – an introductory lesson on which tenses to use to describe charts and graphs


IELTS writing – academic task 1 – conclusions – how to write a conclusion for IELTS task 1.

Types of chart

IELTS writing – academic task 1 – thinking about charts and graphs – a brief video introduction to the different types of task in IELTS task 1 – looking at the type of language needed

Practice materials and recommended sites


IELTS writing – academic task 1 – a daily exercise – a link to the Daily Chart from the Economist to practise the langauge of charts and graphs

A model pie chart report – step by step

This lesson gives you a step-by-step approach to dealing with pie charts in task 1. I talk you through how to identify the main points, select the supporting details and then structure your report. I then show you two model answers: one with standard vocabulary and...

Choosing the right details in a bar chart

This lesson is designed to help you think about how part 1 IELTS writing works. The idea is that many of the problems with task 1 writing are caused by the thinking part – analysing the data. That matters because the goal in task 1 is not just to describe the...

Pie charts – a quick start guide

This quick lesson is intended to guide you through the basics of describing a pie chart in IELTS. The idea is show you some of the problems pie charts present and suggest some of the language you need to describe them. Note  that this is an introductory lesson only...

Two pie charts and a line graph – farming in the UK

This lesson gives you a sample task one report when you need to describe 3 different charts/graphs. This may look tough, but the principle is the same – organise your writing by selecting and reporting the main features in paragraphs. If you can do that, the writing...

The Olympics medal table

This lesson looks at possibly the hardest of the academic task one diagrams – the table. I have taken the Olympics medal table – a difficult table to describe because it contains so much data. If you can accurately describe this table, then IELTS tasks should be...

IELTS pie charts exercise – range of vocabulary

This lesson gives you a model IELTS pie chart answer. But what is really about the language you need for task one academic writing. My answer may surprise you. It’s SIMPLE language used well – that means CLEARLY. Another key word (one that I repeat a lot below)...

Task one numbers exercise – transport

Sometimes it is good to test yourself a little. Here you will find a task one numbers exercise and an exercise to test you on your transport vocabulary. The idea is that these should be tests that teach – so you will find extensive notes to the answers as you do the...

A strategy for planning task 1

This lesson comes in three halves!! In the first half, I try and persuade you to spend time in planning task 1 answers. This is where many task 1 answers go wrong. I then talk you through one possible strategy for planning an answer. Then I show you a sample...

Academic Task 1 writing – migration to Australia

This lesson is really about thinking how to organise your task 1 answer – something that is often a problem. I suggest some basic principles that may help you with organisation. To show you how this can work, I also show you a sample answer using these principles. A...